titles paragraphs fill ins and 3 rebuttals

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Hi! I worked with a tutor on here who did not do a good job at all and so now I need help because my project is due tonight. I actually wrote my paper myself because the tutor’s paper was HORRIBLE!

The rebuttals are from the previous tutor which I will upload at the bottom and I can barely understand his English.

What I need is in the main paper to separate into proper paragraphs and title each section based on what that paragraph is about.

I also need a tutor to read the directions and make sure that all the requirements by the teacher are met in the paper and if not to fill them in please.

Finally, I will post three papers that are already separated by paragraphs and are titled and from EACH paper I need you to pick ONE of their topics and write a 250-350 word rebuttal with minimum of two academic resources to support the rebuttal in a scholarly manner.

I will also post the rebuttals the previous tutor wrote in case you can use it as a base to make your writing easier. I really appreciate your help ahead of time.

THIS IS MY ASSIGNMENT:

These are the directions to the paper (Part 1)

Your instructor will assign you one of the following positions related to the legalization of recreational marijuana use:

  1. Against Recreational Marijuana Legalization (THIS IS MINE)

Part 1:

Research your assigned position as well as the alternatives so you can critically engage with your opponents’ position.

In 750-1,000 words, write a summary about your assigned position that describes its major tenets and arguments for them. Make sure to include the physiological, psychological, and sociological effects of marijuana use in your summary.

Use minimum of ten academic resources.

Part 2:

By Day 4, post your 750-1,000-word paper as your initial response to the thread in the Main Forum titled “Recreational Marijuana Legalization Debate” for the topic you have been assigned.

By Day 5, respond to the three alternative positions with a 250-350-word rebuttal.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

THESE ARE THE THREE PAPERS FROM WHICH ONE TOPIC WILL BE TAKEN TO WRITE THE REBUTTAL:

PAPER 1:

For Recreational Marijuana Legalization

Part 1

Introduction

Legalized marijuana for recreational use is approved in both Washington and Colorado. Voters in both states went to the ballots and passed regulations. For obvious reasons, the new regulations have raised concerns whether passing marijuana for recreational use would cause more problems socially and/or create a higher addiction rate. The real question is whether making marijuana legal will increase or decrease crime rate, addiction rate or health concerns. This paper will focus on the positive means of approving marijuana for recreational purposes.

As stated in Kilmer, Caulkins and Midgette (2013), “on November 6, 2012, voters in Washington state passed Initiative 502 which removed the prohibition on the production, distribution, and possession of marijuana for non-medical purposes” (p. 1). The state of Colorado followed suit and it looks to be the trend in the coming years.

Improve Patient Quality of Life

We live in a world with many different view-points, that it is essential to respect all kinds of individuals. As stated in the ACA code of ethics (2014), “counselors actively attempt to understand the diverse cultural backgrounds of the clients they serve.” (p.4) One important population are people that strive with the health benefits of marijuana. It would be very difficult to deny that marijuana has shown positive health benefits, especially for controlling pain. Research has shown benefits for people suffering from epilepsy, Crohn’s disease, cancer pain, fibromyalgia, PTSD and multiple sclerosis. Marijuana is not as addictive and provides a calming effect. It should also be noted, as stated in the Institute of Medicine Staff (1999), “THC, the primary active ingredient in marijuana, is an FDA-approved drug referred to as dronabinol and marked as Marinol” (p. 137).

Many people suffer from chronic pain. Narcotic pain medication can be quite harsh on the body, and there is significant research that shows narcotics are highly addictive. Marijuana treats chronic pain in a more holistic fashion and provides a sense of well-being on the patient. As stated in the Institute of Medicine Staff (1999), “the most encouraging clinical data on the effects of cannabinoids on chronic pain are from three studies of cancer pain” (p. 142). Cancer pain is very severe. Marijuana provided a pain-free life with a sense of non-reality and peace. Marijuana provided no side effects of nausea or vomiting as you would find in some narcotic pain medication. At this point the benefits outweigh the risks.

Teen Marijuana Use Declining

Everyone has heard the saying, limitations create a desire to engage on the activity that is being limited. Teens want to engage in things their parents talk bad about. The risk is exciting. The more limitations we put on marijuana, the more the younger generation will want to engage in. If marijuana is legalized, as alcohol, but with rules placed, the desire to “hide” the risk will become lower. Teen marijuana use has decreased over the past few years, since the legalization of recreational marijuana in the states of Washington and Colorado. This brings a sense of security that by relaxing the marijuana laws, will not increase teen usage. The message that parents and the media portray that marijuana is dangerous stops and teens are not looking for the risk anymore with marijuana.

As stated in Rojas (2011), “one can show independence from adults by smoking cigarettes because it is something adults do not approve of” (p. 78). Risky behaviors during the teen years is a part of growing up and learning. However, it has been found that marijuana use provides teens less issues than other drugs. As stated in Rojas (2011), “a moderate use of marijuana in adolescents is related to a better psychological adjustment” (p. 78).

To recap, you take away the assumption that marijuana is bad and you take away the risk and see the usage decline. It is important to mention that since Colorado has legalized the use of marijuana, teens that use marijuana has declined from 22% between the first few years.

Legalizing Marijuana Creates Jobs

Since Colorado has legalized the recreational use of marijuana, their economy has flourished. It is estimated that over 10,000 new jobs have been created and their employment rate has gone down by 6%. Imagine if marijuana was legalized all over the country, how many jobs could be created and the money spent trying to enforce marijuana use will stop, creating more money in the economy.

Marijuana Crimes Non-Violent

Marijuana is not a harmful drug. Violent behaviors are not reported to occur while someone is intoxicated with marijuana. Most behaviors reported are of calmness, act of being silly and happy. Most people report that they are not out of control while taking marijuana.

Marijuana Less Harmful Compared to Alcohol or Cigarettes

As stated in Iversen (2011), “unlike tobacco, where a high proportion of first time users go on to become lifetime smokers, most cannabis users do not go on to become regular users of the drug” (p. 212). Research shows that people who engage in marijuana use, show no impact on their school, work or family relationships. However, people who engage in cocaine and other harsher drugs have significant impacts in all areas of their life.

Conclusion

As stated in Iversen (2011), “when asked why they continued to use cannabis the most common reasons given social uplift (pleasure, enjoyment, relaxation, increased sociability), a cheap and harmless alternative to alcohol and other drugs and increased awareness and understanding” (p. 217). Marijuana should not be a huge concern within the United States. There are far more crucial acts to consider. Marijuana not only provides a peaceful state to people, but does not have as much addicting qualities as in alcohol or smoking, and it provides medical health benefits that far outweigh the risks. Why put so much scrutiny on something that really does not cause harm compared to so many other things. We are wasting our time on something that really does not need much attention.

References

American Counseling Association. (2014). ACA code of ethics.

Alexandria, VA: Author. Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org./knowledge-center/ethics

Institute, O. M. S. (1999). Marijuana and medicine: assessing the science base. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.o…

Iversen, L. L. (2001). Science of marijuana. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.o…

Kilmer, B., Caulkins, J. P., & Midgette, G. (2013). Before the grand opening: measuring washington state’s marijuana market in the last year before legalized commercial sales. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org

Rojas, A. S. (Ed.). (2011). Marijuana: uses, effects and the law. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.o…

PAPER 2:

LEGALIZATION OF RECREATIONAL MARIJUANA

Recognizing the inability of the Harrison Anti-Narcotics Act of 1914 to stop the opioid trade and Prohibition’s dismal failure to remove alcohol, it is clear legislation does not halt the use of addictive substances. Therefore I, Julie Streit, stand firmly resolved that the United States Federal Government should reform its anti-marijuana laws.

Observation 1: The Definitions.

Marijuana: Leaves of the cannabis plant that have been dried and shredded (Levinthal, 2016, p.133).

Recreational: Relating to or denoting drugs taken on an occasional basis for enjoyment, especially when socializing. (Dictionary.com)

Observation 2: The Harms

Harm 1: Current anti-marijuana laws are an enormous drain on law enforcement, court time, and jail space paid for in tax dollars.

Marijuana is second only to alcohol as the drug of choice in the United States (Patrick, Kloska, Vasilenko, & Lanza, 2016, p.904). It appeared on the social scene during Prohibition when liquor was unavailable. Marijuana “tea pads” in major cities outnumbered the local speakeasies, where illegal liquor was sold. These marijuana clubs lacked the rowdy reputation of taverns, and showed no evidence of community disturbance (Levinthal, 2016, p.134). Yet alcohol was re-legalized as marijuana was illegalized. Marijuana is typically smoked, as are cigarettes, but while both contribute to asthma, marijuana does not contribute to the development of emphysema (p.141). Yet nicotine is legal and marijuana is not. Meanwhile, Anthony Johnson, proponent of Oregon’s Measure 91 to legalize marijuana, points out that over 10,000 people per year were getting arrested for marijuana possession before Oregon legalized it (McGreal, 2014, para. 30). Not only does this show the inefficiency of current laws, it also highlights the tremendous amount of time that must be spent for each of those arrests, prosecutions, and court cases. This time could be more efficiently spent on keeping our communities safe from thieves, murderers, vandals, muggings, etc.

Harm 2: Illegalization of marijuana seriously handicaps medical personal from studying its effects both psychologically and for medicinal purposes.

Van Ours (2012) points out uncertainty as a common factor in efforts to assess health affects and the need for additional research of marijuana (para. 6-7). Because marijuana is illegal except in tightly controlled circumstances, there is much we do not know about its long-term effects on health. Those who use illegally are unlikely to risk arrest for the sake of such research. Legalization of marijuana would enable researchers to understand better both pros and cons of marijuana usage and, if necessary, properly treat health issues that arise.

Observation 3: The Plan

Agency: Congress shall pass; President shall sign.

Mandates:

Bans on marijuana usage will be lifted and replaced with government oversight to ensure purity, intensity, and quality of product.

Funding: A tax could be levied on the sale of marijuana. The exact amount may be determined at a later date.

Enforcement: United States Food and Drug Administration

Observation 4: Advantages

Advantage 1: Legalization of marijuana would allow law enforcement agencies to focus on protection of the populace and prosecution of more violent crimes (McGreal, 2014, para.5). Those engaged in illegally marketing marijuana could turn their attention to more profitable pursuits. As a high percentage of illegal marketing takes place in impoverished areas, the crime rate in those areas would decrease. Taxes from legal sales could be close to $16 million a year (McGreal, 2014, para.14). This funding could be used to rehabilitate the addicted rather than clothe, feed, and house the incarcerated. It could also be used to provide recreational and/or work programs for individuals no longer engaged in growing and selling illegal marijuana.

Advantage 2: Legalization of marijuana would enable researchers to work with chronic marijuana users and uncover more precisely its long-term effects on otherwise healthy individuals (Van Ours, 2012, para 7). This research could also clarify the boundaries of safe and unsafe usage. Long-term effects on heart, lungs, and cognitive functioning could be explored without the confusion of comorbid disorders. Finally, clear research would provide a foundation for better education of our youth. Studies have shown those in their teens and twenties to have the highest marijuana use (Patrick et al., 2016, p.904). Evidence-based education could go far toward discouraging unsafe usage.

Summary

Harm 1: Current anti-marijuana laws are an enormous drain on law enforcement, court time, and jail space paid for in tax dollars.

Harm 2: Illegalization of marijuana seriously handicaps medical personal from studying its effects both psychologically and for medicinal purposes.

What are we going to do? Legalize marijuana and subject it to government oversight.

Adv. 1: Law enforcement agencies could be put to more effective uses.

Adv. 2: Research would clarify benefits, harms, and safety issues while allowing for better education of our youth.

References

Levinthal, C.F., (2016). Drugs, behavior, and modern society (8th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/pearson/2015/drugs-behavior-and-modern-society_ebook_8e.php

McGreal, C., (2014, October). Will measure 91 make Oregon the most marijuana friendly state in the US? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/oct/31/measure-91-legal-marijuana-oregon-vote-ballot-state

Patrick, M. E., Kloska, D. D., Vasilenko, S. A., & Lanza, S. T. (2016). Perceived friends’ use as a risk factor for marijuana use across young adulthood. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30(8), 904–914. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edswss&AN=000393673600013&site=eds-live&scope=site

Van Ours, J.C. (2012, April) The long and winding road to cannabis legalization. Addiction. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03625.x

PAPER 3:

Recreational Marijuana Legalization Debate: For Legalization

Part 1

Introduction

It is estimated that 40% of individuals have already consumed Marijuana whether their state had laws of making Marijuana legal or not. (Jacques, 2017) 40% of individuals have taken the initiative to risk their sense of security in order to understand this “out of world’ experience. These individuals who also could be adolescents have decided to go to an illegal marijuana market, get unsafe marijuana products, or end up in jail based on their use of the drug. And yet, Marijuana is known for being the safer drug compared to some of its other drug friends such as cocaine and heroin. If legalized, it can also be known for keeping our youth safe and saving money with having reducing law enforcement resources to focus on marijuana users who are not even likely to overdose on marijuana. So why have we not legalized marijuana?

The Safer Drug

If an individual need to consume a drug in order to help their overall state, Marijuana is known for being the safer drug. No one has ever died from a marijuana overdose and yet between 25,000-39,000 have died from either an alcohol-related cause or a drug overdose. (Jacques, 2017) It is also known for being less harmful than cigarettes and other legalized drugs. Marijuana is also the safer drug through showing beneficial health benefits for treatments such as cancer, migraines, seizures, and glaucoma. It can also support an individual who is struggling with insomnia. (Jacques, 2017) In an article, researchers were able to identify an increase in marijuana compared to tobacco, alcohol, and other composite illicit drug use which could be more harmful compared to marijuana. (Kerr, 2018, g. 674) Marijuana is also known as the safer drug because it is known for being a gateway drug leading to abuse of higher potency drugs. (Jacques, 2017) Marijuana should be legalized based on how it is known for being the safer drug compared to other drugs alone with the medical support it can bring to individuals.

Reduce Crime and save money

Individuals whether it be adolescents who are wanting to explore it or adults who are wanting the “out of world” experience are already consuming this drug even though it remains illegal in 41 states. As stated before 40% of individuals have admitted to consuming the drug but are setting themselves up for being criminals which can be harming for young people, people of color, and can cause an increased in prisons. (Marijuana Legalization and Regulation, n.d) It is noted that if marijuana was legal, it can reduce overcrowding in prisons and lower law enforcement costs. (McGinty, 2017) This means lowering law enforcement costs could save $8 billion dollars across the US in law enforcement currently spent on enforcing the prohibition of marijuana. (McGinty, 2017)

Regulate Marijuana in a safe manner

When individuals are wanting to consume marijuana in illegal states, they will sometimes have to initiate dangerous marijuana markets, drug cartels, or buy unsafe or tainted marijuana products. (McGinty, 2017) When Marijuana is regulated safely because of legalization, they can reduce the power and profits of the drug cartels, protect marijuana users from consumer unsafe or tainted marijuana products, and move marijuana into stores in a safe manner. (McGinty, 2017) Because of the legalization, production testing of marijuana would have to be implemented as a standard requirement, so consumers could better understand the product they are buying. (Marijuana Legalization and Regulation, n.d)

Protect our youth

“Moreover, behavioral economic theories suggest that greater accessibility and availability may make marijuana less “forbidden”, “elusive,” or “desirable,” and thus decrease use, especially among young nonusers who may be curious about marijuana. (Cohen, 2017) Legalizing marijuana could protect young consumers for feeling enticed to partake of this drug. Legalizing marijuana can prevent the youth of our country for engaging with illegal dealers who would offer marijuana to these individuals at a young age.

Conclusion

Marijuana is a drug use for individuals to leave their lifestyle in a form of having a stress-free moment. Marijuana should be legalized based on being the safer drug, reducing crime, saving money, being able to be regulated in a safe manner, and protecting our youth. There has been such a high number of deaths from individuals who wanted that “stress-free moment” and yet have died trying to find that moment. Wouldn’t it be better if they just consumed a drug that had not risk for an overdose?

References

Cohn, A. M., Johnson, A. L., Rose, S. W., Rath, J. M., & Villanti, A. C. (2017). Support for

Marijuana Legalization and Predictors of Intentions to Use Marijuana More Often in Response to Legalization Among U.S. Young Adults. Substance Use & Misuse, 52(2), 203–213. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/10826084.2016.1223688

Kerr, D. C. R., Bae, H., & Koval, A. L. (2018). Oregon recreational marijuana legalization:

Changes in undergraduates’ marijuana use rates from 2008 to 2016. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 32(6), 670–678. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/adb0000… (Supplemental)

Jacques, R. (2017, December 07). This Is Why Marijuana Should Be Legal Everywhere.

Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/24/marijuana-legalization_n_4151423.html

McGinty, E., Niederdeppe, J, Heley, K., Barry, C.L, (2017) Public

perceptions of arguments supporting and opposing recreational marijuana legalization, Preventive Medicine,Volume 99, Pages 80-86, ISSN 0091-7435, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.01.024.

(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743517300488)

Marijuana Legalization and Regulation. (n.d.). Retrieved from

http://www.drugpolicy.org/issues/marijuana-legaliz…

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