the U.S. government during the Civil War, history homework help

From each section please use the link to answer the questions.

Section 1

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1866endfocivil…

Read this 1866 proclamation in which President Andrew Johnson notes all the official statements made by the U.S. government during the Civil War about the South being in a state of rebellion against the Union. He then concludes that civil order and police authority have been restored to the South, and it is no longer officially in a state of insurrection. Johnson’s proclamation opened the door for these states to rejoin the Union politically, economically, and socially.

After reading this document, please consider the following questions:

  • What does this document tell us about President Johnson’s opinion of the Confederate States of America and the concept of secession?
  • What does this document reveal concerning Johnson’s position on the rights of Americans under the U.S. Constitution?
  • How might the views expressed by Johnson here help explain his later opposition to Congressional Reconstruction

Section 2

http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1851-1875/repo…

Read this June 20, 1866 report in which Northern Republicans in Congress challenged President Andrew Johnson’s plans to allow Southern states to once again elect senators and representatives. The congressmen argued that the Southern states voluntarily withdrew from the Union and consequently lost their right to elect members to Congress. They asserted that Southern states should only be allowed to return members to Congress once they had reorganized their state governments and addressed civil rights concerns.

After reading this document, please consider the following questions:

  • What reasons were given in this congressional report for suspending the rights of some of the inhabitants of the former Confederacy?
  • According to this report why was it necessary to guarantee the rights of the African American freedmen?
  • How would the proposals made in this report enable the Republican Party to dominate in the states of the former Confederacy?

Section 3

http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pagev…

Read this 1867 appeal to Congress in which prominent African American advocate, Frederick Douglass, discusses the importance of voting rights for his people. He warns the members of Congress that Southernwhite Democrats will unite with Northern Democrats to regain control of the federal government if the Republicans in Congress do not enforce voting rights for African Americans. If the Democrats secure control of Congress, they will stop enforcing civil rights laws and take away African Americans’ hard-won freedoms.

After reading this document, please consider the following questions:

  • In his appeal, what arguments does Frederick Douglass employ to persuade Congress to grant African Americans the right to vote?
  • According to Douglass, what would be the negative consequences of denying African Americans the right to vote?
  • To what extent were Douglass’s warnings prophetic?

Section 4

https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/163/…

Read this 1896 ruling in which Justice Brown of the U.S. Supreme Court presents the majority opinion of the court, affirming a Louisiana state court’s ruling that racial segregation in railroad cars does not violate the 13th and 14th Amendments of the Constitution. The Plessy v. Ferguson case provided the legal basis for segregation of all public facilities in most Southern states for the next 50 years.

After reading this document, please consider the following questions:

  • How does this Supreme Court decision distinguish between political and social equality?
  • How did this distinction shape this Supreme Court decision?
  • In this decision, what is the relationship between state government and the federal government?

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