discuss which musical culture you found most interesting during this course. Which instruments did you find most interesting and why? Were there any particular activities you found intriguing? Do you feel like you now know more about our diverse planet, and about how musical activities reflect the cultures that create them?
There have been connections between Japanese and Chinese cultures for almost 2,000 years, and the effects of that relationship exist till in the modern times. As the more sophisticated and older of both civilizations, the culture of Chinese had a huge effect on almost all elements of existence in japan (Mesman et al., 2016). When both Japanese and Chinese civilizations first integrated, there did not exist any documented Japanese tongue. Therefore, when the cultures integrated, the Japanese embraced the script of the Chinese for communication between the realms to be possible (Jia et al., 2004). Over the years, the ways of writing in the two cultures have transformed enough that they are currently distinctively unique. In the absence of a structured religion of the two cultures, there was a firm appeal for both Confucianism and Buddhism when both nations met. Though several individuals in Japan currently adhere to their older beliefs of Shinto, there is an extensive following of Buddha sill in Japan currently.
Music in The Middle East
Halal and Haram music
Halal is all classical and folk music, which are considered acceptable by society due to their high moral status. Examples of halal can include folk and military music. Haram are those songs that don’t consider any moral or ethical status in society. These songs also contain sexual and taboo content.
Use of Music in Islamic Religious Activities
Islamic religion follows the prophet’s teachings, which gives strict rules on what is accepted and what is restricted in the faith. Through the lessons, music has been considered to be unacceptable.
Sufis View on Music
Sufis believe that just like music helps to connect the audience and the singer, it can help them to attain union with Allah. Through this, they have been able to remove the restrictions set by the prophet (Iis.ac.uk. n.d.). Most of the famous musicians in the middle east are members of this group
In West Africa, Mande is among the societies that use an oral system to pass down traditions and communicate with each other. This community has a hierarchical societal structure with a caste system. The society is organized into three castes: farmers and nobles, specialized professionals, and slaves. Furthermore, the community-owned piece of land and competed with others for territorial expansion. The Mande played music on instruments and is only performed by families of musicians. This reflects the caste system of stratification, where only those in a given cast have the priority to do other things.
On the other hand, the BaMbuti pygmies of the Congo region have an egalitarian society. This means that everyone takes part in the hunting and food-making process. However, the roles have been gendered in a way that enables all men to go hunting together while all women make huts. The BaMbuti follow a patrilineal descent system, and sister exchange for marriage is a common phenomenon. Regarding music, this community plays ceremonial trumpets that are blown by men. Furthermore, the trumpet is collectively brought by the youth hence indicating the egalitarian view of the community.
Major differences between Hindustani culture and Carnatic culture
For the case of the South Indian Carnatic culture, the music has a huge emphasis on the vocals. Some of the musical practices include singing in a manner that is rhythmic and harmonious. In the case of transmission, it was often done by analyzing compositions that have been already written. Some of the instruments that are mainly used in this kind of music include the Mandolin and the Veena. On the other side, in the North Indian Hindustani culture, the music can be described as an outgrowth of the Carnatic culture. Some of the musical practices included singing as groups in a manner that emphasized on vocals. For the case of transmission, it is done through rote. Some of the instruments that were used include the Tabla and the Sarangi. The difference that exists today between the two forms of music due to the fact in the North Indian Hindustani culture the music continues to be influenced by western culture while in South Indian Carnatic culture, the music remains the same (Kashallu, 2016). Religion contributes to this gap since in the South India people tend to be more religious as shown by their music in comparison to Northern India which tends to be more secular.
The importance of trance rituals in Indonesia
The trance rituals are a spiritual way of communication and seeking specific needs from the spirit world. Participants and spectators involved in the ritual work together in providing a linkage to the religious or magical world for the community. Through the trance, communication of the community ills are made and thus helps in doing away with it.
The purpose of participating in the ritual
The community often involved in the ceremony as a way of spiritual healing through rhythmic dancing that altered the consciousness of the individuals. It was majorly used to heal sickness for both individuals and that of the greater community (pg. 177). Additionally, the individuals who participated sought to showcase the prowess of their warriors in battles through forming long and unique patterns through the rhythms during the rituals.
Insights of ‘communicating’ with the spiritual world.
The individuals involved in the entire ritual act as a medium of accessing healing power from the spirit world and transferring it to the needy in the crowd who are mostly spectators. Similarly, they offer linkage to the community’s evil, ill doings during the ritual.
How tourism in Bali affected the ritual
By the availability of a jet airport within the island, it opened the way for tourists who brought with them their distinct culture (pg. 177). Through their more extended settlement breached the cultural practice of the community.