Final Project: Applying the Planning, Organizing, Leading and

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Final Project:  Applying the
P-O-L-C (Week 8)

Students will read the case study
that focuses on the four functions of management:  planning, organizing,
leading and controlling (P-O-L-C).  You have been hired as a consultant to
help Mike Davis and his family to solve the problems with his business. You
will create a consultancy plan that covers the four functions of
management.  In creating the management plan, you must also demonstrate
how the four functions of management are interrelated showing how issues in one
function impact other functions. 

In speaking with Mike, Ethan and
Daisy, you already know the following about the business owners:

  1. failed to develop or share a mission statement;
  2. failed to determine the best way to organize resources,
    including personnel;
  3. underestimates the importance of recruitment, job
    design and descriptions, and training;
  4. assumed that motivation will occur naturally;
  5. fails to define standards and other measurable
  6. ignored negative information;
  7. delayed actions to improve organizational outcomes.

 Note:  A report is not
written like a paper.  Please use the Outline for the Consultancy Report

Required Elements of the Consultancy

Students will create a consultancy
plan that helps Mike, Ethan and Daisy run the business, both day-to-day and
over the long term (strategically).  Be succinct in your writing but
persuasive so that the recommendations will have positive outcomes for the

Students are not using buzz-word and
are not defining terms using a dictionary.  Students are expected to
present the material in a professional manner describing and explaining to the
owners.  As a consultant, you should be secure in your presentation to
Mike, Ethan and Daisy..  Avoid telling the owners that they should do this
or must do that but write in an action-oriented manner.  Students are
expected to make connections between the facts of the case study and concepts,
theories, and ideas presented in the course material.

  • In creating the consultancy report, students will first
    assess the business and identify specific areas of strengths and
    weaknesses of the business as it relates to the components of the
    P-O-L-C.  In completing this section, do not create a heading for
    each element of the P-O-L-C but write from the perspective of the
    consultant discussing the strengths and weaknesses of the business;
  • Select  a management style (class hierarchy,
    democratic hierarchy, collaborative management or collective management)
    and explain why the selected model is most appropriate for Outdoor
    Adventure Paintball Park;
  • Develop roles and responsibility of the owners and
    employees (Be creative in completing this task);
  • Discuss why these positions are necessary to the
  • Make specific recommendations for improving the
    management of Outdoor Adventure Paintball Park.  Cover all aspects of
    the P-O-L-C.  This area of the paper specifically addresses the areas
    of strengths and weaknesses identified above and puts in place a plan for
    the short and long –term success of the business;
  • Create a balanced scorecard that will help Outdoor
    Adventure Paintball Park align its business activities to the vision and
    strategy of the organization, improves communication and monitors
    performance against goals;
  • Students are expected to show what they have learned in
    the course by applying theories and concepts.  Be sure to support
    your reasoning.

Required Formatting of Consultancy

  • The consultancy report should be single-spaced,
    12-point font, and between 6-8 pages in length excluding the title page
    and reference page;
  • Title page with your name, the course name, the date,
    and the instructor’s name;
  • An introductory paragraph, a summary paragraph and the
    use of headings are required;
  • Use the course material to support your
    reasoning.  Outside resources may be used but the majority of the
    support will come from the course readings with a wide array of readings
  • Writing is expected to be clear and concise;
  • Use APA formatting for in-text citations and reference
    page.  You are expected to paraphrase and not use direct quotes;
  • Write in the third person;


Outline For The Consultancy Report

I. Title Page

The title page of a formal report
works in collaboration with the cover page to provide a solid

introduction to the consulting report.
Your team’s report will certainly have a sense of

permanence; it will likely be filed
and periodically reviewed and consulted. Therefore, the title

page should include specific
information regarding the report:

• Names of the authors
or other contributors, including contact information and the name of

the organization you’re working within.

• A very good and
specific title that reflects, as much as possible, the main points of the


• The name of the
business or organization that your team is consulting

II. Executive Summary

An executive summary is designed
primarily to serve the person who, at least initially, does not

intend to read the entire report. It
usually states the main points of each section and emphasizes

results, conclusions, and
recommendations, usually in around three pages. Executive

summaries are ideally suited to the
needs of readers who are seeking advice about a decision or

a course of action. These summaries
are called executive summaries because some decision makers

rely wholly upon their advisors to
read and evaluate the rest of the report.

For the purposes of this project, the
executive summary should be three pages, and should

concentrate on listing the tasks
performed by the team. This would involve summarizing

problem/opportunity areas,
methodology, conclusions, and recommendations. It’s not a bad idea

to develop an executive summary during
the early stages of your team’s writing process, as this

document can help to provide your team
some focus. Keep in mind, however, that this will also

be a document that will need to be
revised to properly reflect your report.

III. Introduction to the Report

The introduction allows your readers
to preview the nature of the project you have undertaken for

your client. Essentially, the
introduction forecasts the basic organization of the report. Some

writers and readers insist that the
following questions should always be addressed and/or

considered in the introduction to the

What is the problem or the opportunity? Be specific. Whenever
you can, quantify.

Describe the problem or opportunity in
monetary terms, because the proposal itself will

include a budget of some sort and you
want to convince your readers that spending

money on what you propose is smart. Be
positive. In other words, don’t say that a

problem is slowing down production;
say that it is costing $4,500 a day in lost


What is the purpose of the proposal? Even through it might
seem obvious to you, the

purpose of the proposal is to describe
a problem or opportunity and propose a course of

action. Be specific in explaining what
you want to do.

What is the background of the problem or the opportunity? In answering this

question, you probably will not be
telling your readers anything they don’t already know.

Your goal here is to show them that
you understand the problem or opportunity, as well

as the relationships or events that
will affect the problem and its solution.

What are your sources of information? Review the relevant
literature, including

internal reports, memos, external
public articles, or even books, so that your readers will

understand the context of your work.
Clients are looking to you for sound advice. If your

research is sloppy, incomplete, and
rather nominal (for example, you checked out a few

websites that the client could do on
his or her own free time), your report will be less


convincing, and your ethos as a
provider of sound advice will be suspect. The best

reports always contain complete and
thorough research–and complete and thorough

research cannot be completed in the
waning moments of the semester.

What is the scope of your proposal? If appropriate,
indicate what you are proposing to

do as well as what you are not
proposing to do.

What is the organization of the proposal? Indicate the
organizational pattern you will

use in the proposal.

What are the key terms that will be used in the proposal? If you will use any

specialized, or unusual terms, the
introduction is an appropriate place to define them.

In addition, you will want to include
the following information in your introduction:

• The report is written
both to provide the client with a record of the project and to fulfill one of

the requirements for Management 451.

• List the members of
the consulting team, and acknowledge anyone who has provided the

team with assistance, including your
project advisor and the faculty who have taught

Management 451.

IV. Background

Because not all clients will
necessarily be competent in your field, the background section needs

to clearly articulate the context
behind your research.

The Background Sections require you to
conduct comprehensive research. Your suggestions

need to be based on the research that
your team has conducted, and this research needs to be

demonstrated to your client.

Again, your ethos as a sound provider
of business advice is largely based on the research that

supports your findings and ideas.

Background Sections

Normally all of the categories of
background information listed in the report outline can be fully

developed. The order of these sections
can be varied if such an alteration makes sense.

Open the “background” sequence with a
major heading, BACKGROUND, followed by a brief

introduction that explains how the
background sections help to key frames of reference for your

analysis. Open each section with an
appropriate heading. The generic headings can be revised

so that they are more specific. For
example, Client Profile can be revised to
read A Look at Our

Client: Historic Harmar Merchants.

Clearly organize each of the sections.
Open each section with an introductory preview of the

material. Even more importantly, end
each section with a conclusion that summarizes and

explains to the client what the
information is designed to demonstrate.

Relate and unify all of the sections
so that it reads as a coherent whole. Use good transitions

between sections, and conclude with a
section in which you pull together and evaluate the


The Background section is an important
phase in researching and coming to understand your

client, the firm, and the situation
and environment in which they operate. It is an important part in

the structure of your final paper, and
should be between 8 and 10 pages.

Please remember that the Background
section is not the place to analyze problems and

opportunities. These sections provide
the background and frame of reference for the analysis of

the problems.

V. a Client Profile

The purpose of the Client Profile is
to both “bring the client to life” and to tie the information

together by explaining how it helps
portray your client as a member of the business community.

Do not hesitate to interpret
information and to draw conclusions. If your client is a group of

people of whom your contact person is
a member, you may want to treat the group as a

“collective client.” Do a profile of
the group as a whole (for example, the history and makeup of a

governing board.)

Some things that you will want to
include in the Client Profile:

• Places of residence

• Educational and
training background

• Career experience

• Civic interests and

• How and why your
client became interested in this business

• Your client’s
business philosophy and/or attitude towards business

• Any other information
that contributes to a portrait of your client as a person who has

chosen to become the operator of a
small business

VI.  Defining the Firm’s

This section should include:

• A description of the
firm’s short-term and long-term objectives

• Prioritization of
primary and secondary objectives

Objectives should be stated as
specifically as possible (for example, “…to increase net income by

20% of the end of FY 2005”).

VII. Defining the Team’s Tasks

First, this section should clearly
describe the tasks that the consulting team has agreed to carry

out and explain how the team and
client chose those tasks. Normally, these tasks can be

identified concisely (for example,
“Task One: Developing a Market Plan. Task Two: Selecting a

New Location”). This section should
also identify any tasks that the team originally agreed to

perform but which, for whatever
reason, was unable to complete.

The team must clearly point out how a
general task breaks down into component tasks. For

example, “Developing a Market Plan”
will involve several component tasks. The tasks may

include: “Designing and Administering
a Market Survey”; “Designing an Advertising Strategy”, etc.

By the same token, if a team is
presented with only one general task, such as “Crafting a

Business Plan”, they will need to
break that general assignment into component tasks. The goal

is to break down each task into its
smallest components.


Secondly, this section is pivotal
because it serves as a preview for the following section, in which

you explain how you actually carried
out each of the tasks.

Write about your team’s tasks in the
past tense, as if the project and the tasks are already


VIII. Carrying out the Team’s Tasks: Problem, Methodology,

and Recommendations

This is a rather lengthy section that
is organized around the team’s basic tasks. A “Table of

Contents” might list as follows:

Task One: Developing a Marketing Plan

Task Two: Selecting a New Location

Task Three: Securing an SBA Loan

Each task section should be organized

• Describe the current
situation (in effect, the “problem and /or opportunity”) and the

needs / opportunities it creates

• Narrate and explain
the procedure the team followed in addressing the needs

created by the market situation

• Draw conclusions and
make recommendations

The following example illustrates such
an organization, using “Task Two” from the sample above:

Task Two: Selecting a New Location

Evaluating the Current Location

This is a headed section that
describes any advantages but more significantly the

disadvantages of the current business
location. This section explains the problem

and the needs it creates.

Identifying and Evaluating Alternative Locations

This is a headed section that
describes alternative locations and compares them to

the current location and to each
other. This section narrates and explains the team’s

method of operation that addresses the
needs created by the problem; it shows the

team in action.

Conclusion and Recommendations

This is a headed section that pulls
the evaluations together, states the solution, and

justifies one or more recommendations.

If a task area involves two or more
related tasks, the organization would reflect how the basic

task breaks down into component tasks.


Conclusions and Recommendations

Important Note: The organization of
this section should be marked by clear headings and subheadings.

Also, this is a good time to reflect
back on the research that your team conducted. Your team’s

ideas should not appear as if they
developed out of “thin air.” Use sentences that point your

reader back to the research that your
team conducted.

IX. Summary Conclusion

This final section pulls the report
together, offers some words of assurance to the client, and

states the team’s (we hope) pleasure
in having undertaken this consulting project. In pulling the

report together, carefully summarize
your findings and what you see as the prospects for your

client’s business.

X. Bibliography

“Bibliography” or “Works Cited” – call
this section what you want. Whatever the case, you must

list all resources that you used for this
report. Therefore, it is imperative that you keep track of all

the sources that your team used in the

Furthermore, in the text of the report
you must cite your sources whenever you use ideas or data

generated by someone else. You must
cite these sources, even if you do not quote from them

directly. When you do borrow exact
wording, including key phrases, you must use quotation


For examples of proper documentation
and bibliographic form, see the handout from Aldred,

Brusaw, and Oliu The Business Writer’s Handbook, 6th edition. You can also
access MLA and

APA citation style guides from the
Campus Writing Center’s webpage


XI. Appendices

As Brusaw’s Handbook states: “An appendix contains material at the end of a
formal report…

that supplements or clarifies” (54).
Depending on the nature of a consulting team’s tasks,

appendices will be more or less useful
to the client. Among the kinds of material which might be

included in appendices would be
complete statistical readouts, copies of surveys and

questionnaires, reprints of helpful
articles, or excerpts from book length resources, brochures,

copies of letters, etc.

The appendix should reflect the amount
of research that the team put into the project. Be careful

that you don’t overdo it, though. If
your appendix is too voluminous, you risk the chance that your

client will simply refuse to wade
through it to seek out important information.

Make sure that Appendix Materials are
also referenced in the text of the report.

Case Study #3 Final

BMGT 364

Mike Davis worked for one of the big outdoor sporting goods
stores for more than seven years.  Although
he never completed his degree, Mike took some management courses at the local
community college.  The knowledge he
gained from his coursework along with his own tenacity enabled him to rise into
entry-level management. Although Mike enjoyed his job, he couldn’t help wondering
if there was more to life.  Mike always
wanted to open his own business because he wanted to be his own boss and
thought he might be able to earn a decent living.

Recently, retired from a career with the school system as a
PE teacher and sports coach, Mike’s Aunt Daisy was looking to fulfill her dream
of having an outdoor adventure business. 
She had inherited some property years back but had not done anything
with the land to this point. When Aunt Daisy learned that Mike was thinking
along the same lines, she determined it was time to start a business. The two decided to go into business together
and brought in Mike’s younger brother, Ethan, who was working part-time as an
athletic trainer. The trio combined their savings and started hashing out a
plan to use the five acres of land that Aunt Daisy had inherited.

The concept was simple…to open a business where teenagers,
young adults, and work teams from local businesses could enjoy hours of outdoor
fun and entertainment.  There was limited
sports and entertainment for the target audience so the family decided to open
a themed outdoor paint ball park, which they called Outdoor Adventure Paintball
Park.  Outdoor Adventure offers customers
a choice of five battlefields, each offering a different level of play.

Each field provides a unique experience for hours of
enjoyment.  There is the civil war field
with a simulated headquarters and trenches; an old castle, which is made of
multiple levels and a tower; the woods, which offers a true woodsy battle with
placement of several man-made buildings for additional cover; the village,
which is a large field with a wooded section running down one side, a two story
building and bunkers in the middle, with a creek running down the other side;
and the hill, which contains a wooded section and a number of bunkers on a
steep incline. A small store is strategically placed in a location central to
the fields to eliminate the need for guests to leave the playing area.

The costs to customers vary, with rental packages starting at
$25 per person. Customers may also purchase a la carte based on their
individual needs. Additionally, season passes are available for a cost of $150
and birthday party packages are available for $300.  The minimum age to participate in a paint
ball event is 10 years. 

In addition to the five battle fields, there are six air ball
fields that are formatted for 3, 5 and 7-man tournament play.  Air ball fields offer a variety of layouts
that are constantly changed to keep up with the latest craze in tournament
play.  Many of the fields have dedicated fill
stations to eliminate the need for players to leave the field to reload.

The facility also includes a shooting gallery designed to
allow individuals to sharpen their shooting skills.  The gallery contains high velocity paint guns
and a variety of still and moving targets. 
Players may practice aiming, have shootouts or just blast away at
targets for sheer enjoyment. 

Mike manages the business and spends most of his time in his
office with the door closed, Ethan trains new employees and supervises paint
ball events, and Aunt Daisy has oversight of the shooting gallery. The business
started with three employees but has grown quickly to a staff of 20. 

The venture seemed like a good idea.  The family’s passion for sports and working
with youth appeared to be paying off. 
There are loyal repeat customers who purchase expensive equipment and
supplies from Ethan. These customers also enjoy attending extra training and
information sessions. The tournaments have become popular and the local news
has been covering the events.  Moreover, the
business has a reputation for being a safe family friendly environment.

However, recently, Outdoor Adventure has been experiencing
growing pains.  Scheduling is becoming
more challenging as the activities on the field increase.  Staff is pulled from one area of the park to
provide coverage in another. Employees
are starting to complain that they do not understand their job duties outside
of the paint ball fields and feel they need additional training and procedures.  Additionally, a major event was missed due to
double-booking.  A number of customers have
expressed their displeasure with the service and, as a result, spending less
time on the field.  Local businesses are
not responding to special discounts for employee events.  There has been an increase in workplace
mistakes but fortunately these have not resulted in serious accidents.  Customers and employees are starting to
question the leadership and often ask, “How long can a business like this one
last?” or “Who’s running the show?”

Mike has noticed a dip in sales and is now starting to feel
they are losing control of the business. 
While the two closest competitors are 30 – 45 miles away and do not offer
nearly the same amenities, Mike understands that if they do not do something
quickly, their customer base may decide travel to the competition. Moreover, his passion for owning a
sports-oriented business is waning.  He
is concerned about the continued success of the business but the work no longer
seems fun or interesting. 

Aunt Daisy, on the other hand, is not interested in
discussing the books and does not see any need to worry.  She is not concerned about what Mike calls “a
few random incidents” and sees the dip in sales as an indication that it would
be a good idea to expand the offering. 
In fact, she has been presented with the possibility of forming a paint
ball competing team.  She feels this
opportunity is too big to pass up and wants to convince the others that it’s a
good time to pursue.

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