Leadership and management discussion response 1

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Please respond to these discussion APA format with a reference

Discussion 1

The goal of the Scientific Management Theory was to apply scientific
principles to improve the task performance and productivity of workers
(Huber; 2014). In nursing this is done when measuring nurse workloads
or when having a certain number of staff per number of patients, based
on the census from the previous year, productivity, and documentation
(Feigenbaum; 2017).

In the district I work in, we currently have RN’s at all our
campuses but our Pre-K campuses. The Director oversees the LVNs we
currently have. Starting with the next school year, the district wants
to replace any RN that leaves with LVNs. What they don’t
understand is that there has to be an RN to oversee those LVNs. While
they are saving money by hiring the LVNs they don’t take into
consideration the increase workload they are putting on the RNs
without giving them an increase in pay.

Feigenbaum, E. (2017). Theories of healthcare management. Retrieved
from https://healthyliving.azcentral.com/theories-of-he…

Huber, D. (2014).
Leadership and Nursing Care Management, 5th Edition
. [Pageburstl]. Retrieved from

Discussion 2

According to the scientific theory, individuals are motivated by
money (GCU, 2015). Also, scientific management believed in determining
an effective way to structure an organization (Huber, 2014). Based on
the scientific management theory, some routines in health care that
seem to be inefficient is staffing. Nurses are often understaffed, and
this can create issues. When this occurs, nurses feel that they do not
have enough time for patient care, and instead, are too busy charting.
This can lead to inefficient health care.

The reason for participative decision making is to allow nurses to
enhance their autonomy and improve the way an organization functions
(Huber, 2014). Some examples of this decision making in my workplace
are being part of a union. At my hospital, every Thursday we wear a
particular color to show that we all stand together. There are rights
that we are fighting for, and by all wearing the same color, we are
showing them that are all in agreement. Once a nurse reaches six
months of work, they are placed into the “float pool”. Just
recently, nurses fought for their right to have an orientation before
being floated to a new unit. So now, because of this participative
decision, after new hires reach six months, they have the option of
being oriented to the unit to which they will float to, rather than
not having any orientation.

Nurses come together at my job in hopes of making a difference in
their work environment, as well as in the life of their patients. One
nurse saw the need of holding a book drive, so that could have enough
books to pass out to children and their families during their
hospitalization. The nurse informed the managers of her goals and the
managers agreed. Many books were collected and now we can pass out
these books to children on our floors.


Grand Canyon University [GCU]. (2015). Theories and Concepts in
Leadership and Management. Retrieved from https://lc-ugrad3.gcu.edu/learningPlatform

Huber, D. (2014). Leadership and Management Principles.
Leadership and Nursing Care Management, 5th Edition.
[Pageburstl]. Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/978145574…

Discussion 3

The scientific management theory was introduced by an inventor
and engineer names Fredrick W. Taylor. This theory works towards
goals that employers, employees and society have common interest in.
His theory’s purpose was to improve an organization’s
efficiency by determining the most efficient method to completion of
a task. This would be determined by utilizing scientific engineering
and mathematical analysis. The idea was that organizations should
identify the most efficient way to do a job, train employees to
handle the jobs with a set protocol, and provide an equitable system
of rewards for improved productivity. “It was found when this
theory was consistently applied there was significantly improved
productivity, increased employee incentive, improvements in quality,
improved personnel practices as well as more cooperation between
management and employees” (Dininni, 2016).

Staffing is a routine that is inefficient in many health care
operations. Staffing guidelines are often introduced as nurse to
patient ratio without taking acuity into consideration. In my
experience this tool is somewhat helpful in large hospitals settings
but has not been helpful in the small hospitals I currently work at.
The tooll is new to my department so that may be the reason it
doesn’t seem to be used appropriately. It seems that nurses
staffing is in a rut go old habits. Maybe once those old habits can
be broke nurse staffing will improve.

Particpative decision making is evident in my workplace through
nurse committees. There are numerous committees run by nurses that
strive to make positive changes in the workplace. This seems to
improve the communication process of issues from the floor to the committees.


Huber, D. (2014). Leadership and Management Principles.
Leadership and Nursing Care Management, 5th Edition
. [Pageburstl]. Retrieved June 3, 2018 from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/978145574…

Dininni, J. (2016, June 6). Management Theory of Fredrick
Taylor. Retrieved June 3, 2018 from https://www.business.com/articles/management-theor…

Discussion 4

Scientific management theory is one of the earliest theories
developed to improve the work environment process scientifically. The
study sought to improve work performance and explored how the work
environment can affect workers productivity (GCU, 2015). The focus was
founded on a few principles that will optimize the way the work was
done and improves productivity. The central principle was to match
workers to their jobs based on capability and motivation and encourage
them to work at maximum efficiency (Huber, 2014).

Frederic Winslow Taylor, who is the founder of this theory believed
that people are motivated by financial stability, and there should be
a division between individuals with higher positions such as managers
and ground-level workers. This theory cased an increase in the
productivity of the workers and profits for companies and
organizations (Huber, 2014). In healthcare, the lack of resources and
adequate staffing seem to be the central issue in the performance and
productivity of workers. Nurses, for instance, are understaffed and
overworked, with the minimum resource available and has become the
main problem in providing quality patient care. In healthcare, money
should not be an excellent motivator to make people work hard.
Instead, hospitals and organizations should focus on optimizing the
way the work was conducted by providing enough support and resources
to workers.

In the Participative Leadership Style, the upper management
team encourages the workers to contribute ideas and opinion in the
group situation and take responsibility (Huber, 2014). This leadership
style fosters nurses to make decisions about their practice, rather
than having decisions announced to them by management. In our
facility, nurses are encouraged to attend meetings, conferences to
give ideas on their units practice and collectively decide to
implement changes in their unit. This is important because it allows
nurses to maintain autonomy in their work environment and influence
long-term changes in their facility.


Grand Canyon University [GCU]. (2015). Theories and Concepts in
Leadership and Management. Retrieved from https://lc-ugrad3.gcu.edu/learningPlatform

Huber, D. (2014). Leadership and Management Principles.
Leadership and Nursing Care Management, 5th Edition. [Pageburstl].
Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/978145574…

Discussion 5

According to paramount scholars such as Waring (2016),
scientific management theory focuses on increasing economic
efficiency. As such, the productivity of a firm increases through
optimizing and simplifying tasks. Notably, the theory recommends
that jobs should be distributed to workers according to their area
of competence. By so doing, employees handle the tasks within their
best ability, thus enhancing production. According to the theory,
workers are motivated by money and those who achieve more in the day
deserve high pay for them to be encouraged to do more. Additionally,
it states that both managers and employees should work together for
them to have a successful production. Therefore,
understanding the theory enables one to have good
leadership and management skills. This paper seeks to expound on
inefficient healthcare routines that are based on scientific
management theory, list participative decision making available in
my workplace and give a rationale for the same.

Notably, inefficient healthcare routines cause losses in
healthcare organizations and affect workflow
negatively, thus leading to decreased efficiency.
An example of such a habit is poor communication. For example, where
there is minimal interaction between the management and
practitioners, tension can exist, thus affecting the daily
operations. Lack of communication also causes misunderstandings,
which can affect the flow of work in the organization. Additionally,
reduced communication between nurses, managers, and patients leads
to prolonged stays for patients and may also affect the quality of
healthcare and patient safety.

Concurrently, understaffing and overworking of nurses are also
inefficient routines in a hospital. In line with the contemplations
of Twigg, Gelder& Myers (2015), inadequate staffing refers to
where the patient ratio is higher than that of nurses. Consequently,
inadequate staffing of practitioners to patients with several needs
causes overworking of nurses. As such, the increased workload can
lead to nurse burnout, time wastage, medical errors, and increased
rates of nurse turnover. Additionally, understaffing can also cause
poor patient safety as well as health care outcomes, which leads to
inefficiency in the hospital. Therefore, it is necessary for nurse
managers to balance nurse-patient ratio in the bid to bring about
optimum healthcare outcomes.

Remarkably, participative decision making involves nurse
managers and leaders encouraging practitioners to engage
organizational decision-making (Pacheco & Webber, 2016). As a
result, job satisfaction is enhanced, and there is increased
efficiency because nurses are responsible for their work. An example
of participative decision making in my hospital is democratic
leadership. Nurse Leaders consider the ideas of all the nurses
before making the final decision. Consequently, after making the
ultimate decision, they discuss it with the practitioners to clarify
any issues and to make sure they are comfortable with it.

Another example of participative decision making in my hospital
is shared governance.It involves the
collaboration of both managers and nurses in all healthcare
activities. Subsequently, ensuring that all nursing staff have a say
in their working environment motivates them to do their work well.
Additionally, enhancing shared decision making leads to mutual
accountability, which increases efficiency in a hospital. In the
rear, a unit-based council also exists in my workplace. As such, it
supports decentralized decision making. In other words, it enables
nurse staff to have control and full responsibility in their areas
of work.

To sum up, all healthcare organizations should embrace
participative decision making because high staff engagement creates
a pleasing environment for patients and nurses. In the rear, shared
leadership is essential in improving efficiency and quality in
health care centers.


Pacheco, G., & Webber, D. (2016). Job satisfaction: how
crucial is participative decision making?. Personnel
, 45(1), 183-200.

Twigg, D. E., Gelder, L., & Myers, H. (2015). The impact of
understaffed shifts on nurse‐sensitive outcomes. Journal of
Advanced Nursing
, 71(7), 1564-1572.

Waring, S. P. (2016). Taylorism transformed: Scientific
management theory since 1945
. UNC Press Books.

Discussion 6

Some may view the concepts of leadership and management different
from each other. Leadership involves critical thinking, identification
of problems, development of objectivity and judgment, while also
focusing on people; whereas, management focuses on structure (Huber,
2014). Also, management involves planning, organizing, and directing
(Huber, 2014). Although both terms have their definitions, they can
also overlap. Leadership and management can overlap because both lead
and include management (Huber, 2014). Both leader and manager are in a
position in which they can impact the lives of those around them. Both
leader and manager take on a role of responsibility. A leader can be
viewed as a mentor, and someone to look up to. A manager can also
impact the lives of those around them by planning and organizing appropriately.

The goals of management and leadership may sometimes overlap because
both role’s goals are to help others. Although managers are
viewed to be in a higher position, they can often collaborate with
their workers to improve the quality of care that their customers
receive. Leadership involves critical thinking. Good management may
focus on structure, but they also need good critical thinking skills,
to make a difference in their environment. A good manager is one that
is easily approachable and leaders can be viewed as an advocator and a
mentor. Their goal is to impact those around them.

As a nurse leader, I believe that I can expand my influence to
create change by taking advantage of this overlap by utilizing both
characteristics to have a more significant impact on the outcome. I
would take advantage of this overlap so that the results can be more
significant. I see it as a leader and a manager working together. When
this occurs, grander ideas become combined. To be a manager means to
overlook the ideas presented to them, and know what do with them. This
is where their leadership role is carried out, as they then have to
critically think and decide what is the best approach to take. Leaders
can influence others (GCU, 2015). So, with the manager role, the
individual can come up with a structured template, whereas the
leadership role would be used to come up with an objective. As a
leader, I would build personal connections with my colleagues, and as
a manager, I would utilize my position to choose a goal that would
benefit the rest of my staff, and work environment. As a leader and
manager, the primary goal should be the workers and the outcome.


Grand Canyon University [GCU]. (2015). Theories and Concepts in
Leadership and Management. Retrieved from https://lc-ugrad3.gcu.edu/learningPlatform

Huber, D. (2014). Leadership and Management Principles.
Leadership and Nursing Care Management, 5th Edition.
[Pageburstl]. Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/978145574…

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